Video footage shows the 72-year-old being treated at hospital with anti-venom drugs, with hundreds of the stingers covering her face and dead African bees nestled in her hair.
She had been fishing in the Tigrinho River in Britânia, in the state of Goiás, with two other elderly women aged 65 and 71.
The trio hadn't noticed the bee colony when they started fishing on Wednesday afternoon, and ended up disturbing the insects that had settled on a column.
Within minutes, they were under attack from a cloud of angry honey bees numbering well above 10,000.
Motorists driving past the bridge on the highway nearby spotted what was happening and alerted police.
Two officers came to their rescue, and were also heavily stung as they braved the bees.
Sergeant Valdivino de Oliveira, who helped save the victims, told Brazilian media outlet Mais Goiás: "By the time we arrived one of the women had already fainted. She didn't have any more strength to fight. She had been bitten all over her body, but her head and face were the most affected."
The three women were under attack for around 10 minutes, desperately trying to fend off the bees while fighting for their lives.
Sergeant Oliveria revealed said he didn't have time to put on protective gear when he waded into the swam with colleague Sergeant Willian Costa Silva, both risking their lives to pull the women to safety.
He added: "The bees completely surrounded the women. So we drove as close as we could to them, stopped and rushed to push them into our vehicle."
When they were being transported in the police car, the windows were left open to provide an escape route for the bees, but many remained inside and continued to attack.
After arriving at the hospital, medical staff shook the multiple dead bees from the victim's hair, with footage showing the venomous insects lying on the floor.
Images also show Sergeant Silva receiving the antidote in an outstretched arm.
The elderly woman remains in hospital, and her health is reported to be stable.
Her two companions have been discharged after undergoing a series of exams and receiving medication, while the officers were also released within 24 hours.
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